Macrophages are innate immune cells that adopt diverse activation states in response to their microenvironment. Editing macrophage activation to dampen inflammatory diseases by promoting the repolarization of inflammatory (M1) macrophages to anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages is of high interest. Here, we find that mouse and human M1 macrophages fail to convert into M2 cells upon IL-4 exposure in vitro and in vivo.
P4-ATPases are lipid flippases that catalyze the transport of phospholipids to create membrane phospholipid asymmetry and to initiate the biogenesis of transport vesicles. Here we show, for the first time, that lipid flippases are essential to dampen the inflammatory response and to mediate the endotoxin-induced endocytic retrieval of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in human macrophages.
Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder belonging to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). CD affects distinct parts of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to symptoms including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, weight loss, and anemia. The aim of this study was to assess whether the DNA methylome of peripheral blood cells can be associated with CD in women.