Defining tissue- and disease-associated macrophages using a 1 transcriptome-based classification model

Macrophages are heterogeneous multifunctional leukocytes which are regulated in a tissue- and disease-specific context. Many different studies have been published using in vitro macrophage models to study disease. Here, we aggregated public expression data to define consensus expression profiles for eight commonly-used in vitro macrophage models. Altogether, we observed well-known but also novel markers for different macrophage subtypes.


Myeloid Kdm6b deficiency results in advanced atherosclerosis

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Atherosclerosis is a lipid-driven chronic inflammatory disorder of the arteries, and monocytes and macrophages play a central role in this process. Within the atherosclerotic lesion, macrophages can scavenge modified lipids and become the so-called foam cells. We previously reported that the epigenetic enzyme Kdm6b (also known as Jmjd3) controls the pro-fibrotic transcriptional profile of peritoneal foam cells.


A distinct epigenetic profile distinguishes stenotic from non-inflamed fibroblasts in the ileal mucosa of Crohn’s disease patients

The chronic remitting and relapsing intestinal inflammation characteristic of Crohn’s disease frequently leads to fibrosis and subsequent stenosis of the inflamed region. Approximately a third of all Crohn’s disease patients require resection at some stage in their disease course. As the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease associated fibrosis is largely unknown, a strong necessity exists to better understand the pathophysiology thereof.


Mitochondrial Dysfunction Prevents Repolarization of Inflammatory Macrophages

Macrophages are innate immune cells that adopt diverse activation states in response to their microenvironment. Editing macrophage activation to dampen inflammatory diseases by promoting the repolarization of inflammatory (M1) macrophages to anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages is of high interest. Here, we find that mouse and human M1 macrophages fail to convert into M2 cells upon IL-4 exposure in vitro and in vivo.


Phospholipid flippases attenuate LPS-induced TLR4 signaling by mediating endocytic retrieval of Toll-like receptor 4

P4-ATPases are lipid flippases that catalyze the transport of phospholipids to create membrane phospholipid asymmetry and to initiate the biogenesis of transport vesicles. Here we show, for the first time, that lipid flippases are essential to dampen the inflammatory response and to mediate the endotoxin-induced endocytic retrieval of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in human macrophages.


Peripheral blood methylation profiling of female Crohn’s disease patients

Crohn’s disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder belonging to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). CD affects distinct parts of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to symptoms including diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, weight loss, and anemia. The aim of this study was to assess whether the DNA methylome of peripheral blood cells can be associated with CD in women.

figure publication

Targeting macrophage Histone deacetylase 3 stabilizes atherosclerotic lesions.

Macrophages are key immune cells found in atherosclerotic plaques and critically shape atherosclerotic disease development. The epigenomic enzyme Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) has a role in regulating the atherosclerotic phenotype of macrophages. In rodents, myeloid HDAC3 deficiency promotes collagen deposition in atherosclerotic lesions and thus induces a stable plaque phenotype. Also, macrophages presented a switch to anti-inflammatory wound healing characteristics and showed improved lipid handling.